Early Israel and The Surrounding Nations
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Pericle swas a prominent and influential Greekstatesman, orator and general of Athensduring the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persianand Peloponnesianwars.
Pericles promoted the arts and literature; it is principally through his efforts that Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of theancient Greekworld. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis(雅典卫城)(including the Parthenon帕特农神庙). This project beautified and protected the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people.Pericles also fosteredAthenian democracyto such an extent that critics call him a populist.
Abraham, originally Abram, is the first of the threepatriarchs of Judaism（Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites.）. His story features in the holy texts of all the Abrahamic religionsand Abraham plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity,and Islam.
In theBible's Old Testament, Amraphel was a king ofShinar(Sumer) in Genesis 14,who invadedCanaan(迦南)along with other kings under the leadership of Chedorlaomer, king ofElam. Chedorlaomer's coalition defeatedSodomand the other Cities of the Plain in theBattle of the Vale of Siddim.
Beginning with E. Schrader in 1888 this king was usually associated with Hammurabi, who ruled Babyloniafrom 1792 BC until his death in 1750 BC. However, according to The Oxford Companion to the Bible (1993), this view has been largely abandoned in recent years. According to John Van SetersinAbraham in History and Tradition, the existence of Amraphel is unconfirmed by any sources outside the Bible.
1. Assyriology 亚述学
the science or study of the history, language, and antiquities of ancient Assyria and Babylonia
adv,conj(fml文) in spite of this; however; still 虽然如此; 然而; 依然:
Though very intelligent, she is nevertheless rather modest.她很聪明, 倒也很谦虚. *
n.narrow pass through mountains 山中的狭道.
1[I, Ipr]~ (on sth)(of a bird) come to rest or stay (on a branch, etc) （指鸟）栖息, 停留（枝上等）:
The birds perched on the television aerial.鸟停在电视天线上.
2[I, Ipr]~ (on sth)(of a person) sit, esp on sth high or narrow （指人）坐着（尤指坐在高处或窄物上）
perch on high stools at the bar 坐在酒吧的高凳上 *
perch dangerously on a narrow ledge 坐在狭窄的边缘上, 十分危险 *
perch on the edge of one's seat 坐在座位的边上.
3[Tn, Tn.pr] place (sth), esp in a high or dangerous position 将（某物）置於尤指高处或危险处
a hut perched at the edge of the cliff悬崖边上的小舍 *
perch a beret on the side of one's head歪戴贝雷帽 *
a castle perched above the river临河而建的城堡.*
5.crag /kræg; kræɡ/
n high, steep or rugged mass of rock 悬崖; 峭壁; 绝壁; 巉岩.
n[U] (nourishing quality of) food and drink; nourishment 食物; 营养; 养料:
There's not much sustenance in a glass of orange squash.一杯橙汁饮料没有什麽营养. *
weak from lack of sustenance 因缺乏营养而虚弱.
v(-ll-;US also**-l-) [Tn, Tn.pr]~ sb/sth (for/in sth)**
seem or be as good as sb/sth; be comparable to sb/sth
a view rivalling anything the Alps can offer 可以与阿尔卑斯山的任何景物相媲美的景色 *
Cricket cannot rival football for/in excitement.板球不如足球有刺激性.
not much and less than is needed:
We have only received scanty information so far.
1(a) stolen goods 偷来的东西; 赃物:The thieves divided up the spoils.窃贼把赃物分了.
(b) things taken by a victorious army; plunder 战利品; 掠取之物.
2 profits, benefits, etc gained from political power 凭政治权力获取的利益等
the spoils of office利用官职捞取的私利.
[Ipr]~ with/against sb/sth; ~ for sth
struggle in order to overcome a rival, competitor or difficulty （与对手）竞争; （与他人）争夺; （与困难）拚搏:
Several teams are contending for (ie trying to win)the prize.有几个队在争夺锦标. *
She's had a lot of problems to contend with.她有许多问题要解决. *
the captains of the contending (ie rival)teams参与争夺的各个队的队长.
a, not usually before noun
not opposed or stopped by anyone:
The party leader was re-elected unopposed.
◆ Troops crossed the border unopposed.
[C usupl通常作复数] event or change in the life of a person or in the progress of a country, business, etc （在人生中或在国家业务等的发展中的）事情或转变:
The party's fortunes were at their lowest level after the election defeat.该党在竞选失败後每况愈下.
v.[esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr]
fill (a place, an area, etc) with people; populate 使（某地）住满人; 居住於:
He believes the world is peopled with idiots.他认为世上多白痴.
1.[Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr, Tn.p]~ (one's way) across, in, through, etc
attack violently and force a way across, etc (a place) 猛攻而强行穿越﹑ 经过...（某处）:
Three soldiers stormed into the house.有三名士兵冲进了那所房子. *
They stormed (their way) in.他们闯了进去
2 [Tn] capture (sth) by a sudden and violent attack 攻占, 袭取（某事物）:
storm a castle, fort, building, etc攻占一城堡﹑ 要塞﹑ 建筑物等.
captive person or animal 被捉住的人或动物:
Three of the captives tried to escape.捉住的有三个企图逃走.
[Tn] deal with (a difficulty, etc); overcome 克服（困难等）; 战胜:
We had many problems to surmount before we could start the project.我们得克服许多困难才能着手做这项工作.
17.genealogy /ˏdʒiːnɪˈlədʒɪ; ˏdʒinɪˋælədʒɪ/n [U]
study of family history, showing who the ancestors of particular people were and how they were related to each other 家谱学; 宗谱学.
[C] (diagram showing a) particular person's ancestry 家谱; 宗谱.
adv.in the same way 同样地:
treat everybody exactly alike一视同仁 *
The climate here is always hot, summer and winter alike.这里的气候总是那麽热, 夏季和冬季都一样.
[C] (a) piece of land 地皮; 土地.
a vacant `lot, ie a building site 一块空地皮（建筑场地）
20.exodus /ˈeksədəs; ˋɛksədəs/n
[sing]~ (from...) (to...)(fml or joc文或谑) departure of many people at one time （大批人同时之）离去
the mass exodus of people to the sea and mountains for the summer holidays
The play was so awful that there was a general exodus from the theatre at the interval.
the Exodus the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, in about 1300 BC 出埃及事（约公元前1300年以色列人离开埃及一事）.
Exodus title of the 2nd book of the Bible, which tells the story of this departure 《出埃及记》（《圣经 旧约》中的第2卷）.
impossible to understand 不可能理解的; 难懂的:
unintelligible handwriting, jargon看不懂的笔迹﹑ 莫名其妙的行话 *
speak in an almost unintelligible whisper用几乎听不清的低声说话.
22.from without 来自外部的
~ sth (from sb/sth) (fig比喻)
obtain (news, facts, information, etc) usu from various sources, in small quantities and with effort 搜集（消息﹑ 资料﹑ 情报等）（通常指来源广﹑ 零碎而费力）:
glean a few bits of information from overhearing various conversations
From what people said, I managed to glean that he wasn't coming.
reveal sth; disclose sth 泄露﹑ 揭露﹑ 透露﹑ 暴露或露出某事物:
The universe is slowly yielding up its secrets to scientists.宇宙慢慢地向科学家展现了自己的秘密.
n,(degree of) importance 重要; 重要性; 重要程度:
You don't appreciate the magnitude of her achievement.你没有认识到她这一成就的重大意义. *
a discovery of the first magnitude, ie a most important discovery 一项极重要的发现.
(fml文) dig up (sth buried) 挖出（被埋的某物）
The court granted him permission to disinter the body.法院批准他掘出尸体. *
(fig比喻) disinter an old scandal将从前的一桩丑事儿抖出来.
manuscript written on this paper （纸莎草纸上的）文献, 手稿.
n.person's signature or handwriting, esp when kept as a souvenir
I've got lots of famous footballers' autographs.我有许多着名足球运动员的亲笔签名. *
[attrib 作定语]an autograph book/album 签名簿[册].
(a)[Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] examine and decide (a case) in a lawcourt 审讯, 审判（案件）:
The case was tried before a jury.此案是有陪审团参加审理的.
(b) [Tn, Tn.pr]~ sb (for sth) hold a trial of (sb) 审问, 审判（某人）
He was tried for murder.他以谋杀罪名受审.
a,[attrib 作定语] (of an effect, etc) final, after all the major factors have been considered
The net result of the long police investigation is that the identity of the killer is still a complete mystery.警方经长时间调查, 结果凶手的身分仍全然不知.
31.at all events: in any case
32.decrepit /dɪˈkrepɪt; dɪˋkrɛpɪt/ adj.
made weak by age or hard use 衰老的; 老朽的; 破旧的
a decrepit person, horse, bicycle苍老的人﹑ 衰老的马﹑ 破旧的自行车.
> decrepitude n[U] state of being decrepit 衰老; 老朽; 破旧.
[U] great age 久远的年代:
Athens is a city of great antiquity.雅典是一座古城.
remote antiquity 远古
that claims or suggests that sth is true without taking account of evidence or other opinions
a dogmatic attitude, approach, view, etc武断的态度﹑ 方法﹑ 看法等 *
You can't be dogmatic in matters of taste.对於个人爱好的事, 何必这样自以为是.
> dogmatically*** adv*:state sth dogmatically武断地主张某事物.**
35.make havoc of sth; play/wreak havoc with sth
damage or upset sth 破坏或扰乱某事物:
The bad weather played havoc with our plans.天气恶劣把我们的计画打乱了
v [Tn] make (sb/sth) seem small by contrast or distance 使（某人[某物]）相比之下显得小:
Our little dinghy was dwarfed by the big yacht. 我们的小船跟大游艇一比显得很小.
n.general rule, standard or principle by which sth is judged 总的规则﹑ 标准或原则:
This film offends against all the canons of good taste.这部影片违反了审美的一切准则.
- peremptory /pəˈremptərɪ/adj(fml文)
(a) (esp derog尤作贬义) (of a person, his manner, etc) insisting on immediate obedience or submission; domineering
（指人﹑ 举止等）专横的, 霸道的:
His peremptory tone of voice irritated everybody.他那专横的口气激怒了大家.
(b)(of commands) not to be disobeyed or questioned （指命令）不容抗拒的, 不容分说的, 强制的
a peremptory dismissal, rebuke, shout 不容分说的解雇﹑ 指责﹑ 喊叫.
[attrib 作定语] violent; startling; abrupt 狂暴的; 惊人的; 突然的:
a rude awakening to the realities of life 突然觉醒而回到现实生活中来 *
a rude reminder of the danger they were in 使他们突然觉察到所处的危险之事.
v [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr]
~ sb/sth (to sth)
dismiss sb/sth to a lower or less important rank, task or state 使某人[某事物]降级﹑ 降职或降低地位
I have been relegated to the role of a mere assistant. 已经把我降到只任助手的工作了. *
relegate old files to the storeroom 把旧文件存入储藏室.
adj**~ (with sb/sth)*(fml*文)
existing or happening at the same time 同时存在或发生的; 同时期的; 同时代的:
contemporaneous events, developments, etc 同时期的事件﹑ 发展等. >contemporaneously*adv*.
n,report; description 报告; 叙述:
She gave the police a full account of the incident.她把事件向警方作了详细叙述. *
Don't believe the newspaper account (of what happened).不要相信报纸上（对所发生的事情）的报道. *
Keep an account of your daily activities.把你每天的活动都记下来.
43.unhesitating a,quick and confident, without waiting or stopping
adj. extremely careful and thorough; paying great attention to details 极仔细彻底的; 一丝不苟的:
a scrupulous examiner 认真仔细的检查员 *
a scrupulous inspection of the firm's accounts对公司的帐目彻底审核.
45.nay adv. (dated or rhet 旧或修辞)
and more than that; and indeed 不止於此; 而且的确
I suspect, nay, I am certain, that he is wrong.我怀疑, 何止怀疑, 我肯定他错了.
46.Genesis (Bible圣经) the first book of the Old Testament, describing the creation of the world 《创世记》（《旧约》首卷）.
47.allude v [Ipr]~ to sb/sth
(fml文) mention sb/sth briefly or indirectly 提及﹑ 暗指或暗示某人[某事物]:
You alluded to certain developments in your speech what exactly did you mean?你在讲话中提到某些发展--确切的意思是什麽呢?
ad. jwedge-shaped 楔形的:
cuneiform characters, ie as used in old Persian or Assyrian writing 楔形文字（如古代波斯文或亚述文所用的）.
49.reinstate /ˏriːɪnˈsteɪt; ˏriɪnˋstet/
v. ~ sb (in/as sth)
restore sb to a previous (esp important) position 使某人恢复原先的（尤指重要的）职位或地位:
reinstate sb in the post of manager/as manager 恢复某人的经理职位 *
(fig比喻) Sue is now reinstated in his affections, eg after a quarrel. 休现在又重新得到了他的爱（如在争吵之後）.
- principality /ˏprɪnsɪˈpæləti/
n.country ruled by a prince 由王公贵族统治的小国; 公国; 侯国
the principality of Monaco 摩纳哥公国.
~ A (on/over B);~ B with A
scatter sth (over a surface); cover (a surface) with scattered things; sprinkle
撒某物（於某一表面）; 以所撒之物覆盖（某一表面）; 散播
strew papers over the floor/strew the floor with papers 把文件扔得满地都是.
52.worth sb's while
profitable or interesting to sb 对某人有利益或有好处:
It would be (well) worth your while/You would find it (well) worth your while to come to the meeting.你要是参加了这个会议就会觉得很有好处. *
They promised to make it worth her while(ie pay or reward her)if she would take part.他们许诺说她要是参加就一定给她报酬.
n.picture or symbol of an object, representing a word, syllable or sound, as used in ancient Egyptian and other writing 象形字（如古埃及等所用的）.
n. [U, C] angry disagreement 争执:
deal with dissension in the party 处理党内斗争 *
Father's will caused much dissension among his children.父亲的遗嘱引起了子女之间的纷争.
56.adherent /ədˈhɪərənt; ədˋhɪrənt/
n.supporter of a party or doctrine （一政党或主义的）支持者, 拥护者:
The movement is gaining more and more adherents.支持这个运动的人越来越多了.
adj. very great in size, amount or degree, so as to cause amazement or admiration; enormous （在体积﹑ 数量或程度上）大得令人惊叹; 巨大的:
a prodigious achievement 巨大的成就 *
It cost a prodigious amount (of money). 这用了一笔巨款.*
> prodigiously adv:
The costs are mounting prodigiously.价格扶摇直上, 令人吃惊. *
She is a prodigiously talented pianist. 她是才华横溢的钢琴家.*
n, passing of a period of time （时间的）流逝, 过去:
after a lapse of six months 相隔六个月之後.
59.scribe /skraɪb; skraɪb/n
person who made copies of writings before printing was invented （印刷术发明之前的）抄写员.
(in Biblical times) professional religious scholar （圣经时代的）文士, 经师.
60.henceforward /henceforth： from this point on
in such a way that it cannot be otherwisealso**:** as a necessary consequence
further changes will occur of necessity
the punishment of being sent away from a place, especially from a country:
a life of banishment in an alien country 充军，流放
63.subvert /sʌbˈvɜːt; sʌbˋvət/
v [Tn] destroy the authority of (a political system, religious faith, etc) 颠覆, 破坏（政治制度﹑ 宗教信仰等）:
subvert the monarchy 推翻君主政体 *
writings that subvert Christianity 攻击基督教教义的文字.
64.despoil /dɪˈspɔɪl; dɪˋspɔɪl/
v [Tn, Tn.pr]~sth (of sth)
(fml文) rob (a place) of sth valuable; plunder sth 从（某处）抢劫有价值之物; 掠夺某物
Museums have despoiled India of many priceless treasures.博物馆里有许多从印度掠夺来的无价之宝.
n.building where grain is stored 谷仓; 粮仓:
(fig比喻)The Mid-West is America's granary, ie region producing much wheat, corn, etc.
adv.(dated or fml旧或文) into pieces; apart 碎; 散:
families torn asunder by the revolution 被革命拆散的家庭 *
The house was ripped asunder by the explosion.房子被炸得粉碎.*
adj. (formal) extremely large in number
adj.liable to make mistakes 易犯错误的:
We are fallible beings.我们都难免犯错误.
n. (fml文) stillness; calm 平静; 宁静; 寂静.
the existence of Amraphel
privious: only mentioned in Bible
We now know that long before the days of Abraham not only did Babylonian armies march to the shores of the Mediterranean, but that Canaan was a Babylonian province, and that Amraphel, the ally of Chedor-laomer, actually entitles himself king of it in one of his inscriptions.
now:The Babylonia of the age of Amraphel, the contemporary of Abraham, has, thanks to the recent finds, become as well known to us as the Athens of Periklês; the daily life of the people can be traced in all its outlines, and we even possess the autograph letters written by Amraphel himself.
The contracts for the lease and sale of houses or other estate, the documents relating to the property of women, the reports of the law cases that were tried before the official judges, all set before us a state of society which changed but little down to the Persian era.
antiquity before Greek
privious: Apart from the earlier records of the Old Testament, there was no literature which claimed a greater antiquity than the Homeric Poems of ancient Greece; no history of older date than that of Hellas
now:The discoveries of Oriental archaeology.
The civilisations of Babylonia and Egypt were already decrepid when the ancestors of Periklês were still barbarians.
narratives of the Old Testament
source： Bible; the tablets of Babylonia
1. Troy of Priam which had been relegated to cloudland, and have proved that the traditions of Mykenæan glory, of Agamemnon and Menelaos, and even of voyages to the coast of Egypt, were not fables but veritable facts.
2. the campaign of Chedor-laomer and his allies in Canaan
Babylonia was for a time under the domination of the Elamites, and while Amraphel or Khammurabi was allowed to rule at Babylon as a vassal-prince, an Elamite of the name of Eri-Aku or Arioch governed Larsa in the south.
in the Books of the Chronicles: Manasseh of Judah rebelled against his Assyrian master and was in consequence carried in chains to Babylon, where he was pardoned and restored to his ancestral throne.
the cuneiform inscriptions: Esar-haddon mentions Manasseh among the subject princes of the West, and it was just Esar-haddon who rebuilt Babylon after its destruction by his father, and made it his residence during a part of the year. Moreover, other instances are known in which a revolted prince was reinstated in his former power. Thus Assur-bani-pal forgave the Egyptian prince of Sais when, like Manasseh, he had been sent in chains to Assyria after an unsuccessful rebellion, and restored him to his old principality.
the existence of Menes
Some scientists used to declare him to be "fabulous" and "mythical."
now: some of his bones are in the museum of Cairo, and the objects disinterred in his tomb show that he belonged to an age of culture and intercourse with distant lands.
the existence of Sargon of Akkad
at Niffer and Telloh monuments both of himself and of his son were brought to light
At first sight, this article looks so difficult that I was a little scared. As a science student in high school, history has always been my headache. I am always confused with the times when things happened and all those similar names. This article, to me, is no less different.
At least after three times of reading, I began to hold the merit of this article. But it is a little too long that I still get a little lazy in the third day. I admit it and I hope it won’t happen again.
As for the content, it really gives me some new understanding of the religion and development of the East. Though I am Asian, it seems that Greece and Rome are the very birthplace of human civilization. It is probably my ignorance of history that leads to this misunderstanding. But now Babylonia, Palestine and Assyria are all familiar to me. Though they are just some vague concepts to me, at least I know that the history and civilization of them are so fabulous that we should never overlook. Also, this article tells an dilemma in history study. That is we may never make a totally true judgment until we get all the information. But we may never get it and whether our judgment is true or not may remain unknown.